Grains have been found from Harappan sites, indicating agriculture was practiced in Harappan Civilization. But there was no clear information about the actual farming methods. Nevertheless, some pieces of evidence give indications about agriculture practices in Harappan culture, which are as follows –
- The drawings and terracotta on seals indicate that people knew about “Vrishabha” (bull). On this basis, archaeologists believe oxen were used to plow the fields.
- Patterns of clay plows have been found at many sites in Cholistan (Pakistan) and Banawali (Haryana). It is estimated from these that people used plows in agriculture.
- Evidence of a plowing field has been found at a place called Kalibangan (Rajasthan). It belongs to the early Harappan levels. Two sets of plow lines intersect at right angles in this field. From this, it has been inferred that two different crops were grown simultaneously in one field.
Tools – In addition to using plows in agriculture, archaeologists have also tried to identify the tools used for harvesting crops. For this, the people of the Harappan civilization either used stone boards stuck in wooden handles or they would have used metal tools.
Irrigation – Most of the Harappan sites are located in semi-arid regions. There would also be a need for irrigation for agriculture. Regarding irrigation, some remains of canals have been found in Afghanistan from a place called Shortughai, but no such evidence has been found in Punjab and Sindh.
It is possible that the ancient canals in these regions were filled with silt long ago. It may also happen that water obtained from wells is used for irrigation. Apart from this, the reservoirs found in Dholavira (Gujarat) were probably used for collecting water. Irrigation will be done with this water.