What is Management?
Management is the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling resources in an organization to achieve specific goals and objectives. It is the art of getting things done through people and other resources in an efficient and effective way. In simple terms, management is the process of making decisions and taking actions to achieve the goals of an organization.
It involves the coordination and use of resources, including people, money, materials, and equipment, to achieve the organization’s objectives. Management is essential for the success of any business or organization, as it helps to ensure that the organization is able to meet its goals and objectives in a timely and cost-effective manner. It is a process that is necessary for any group or organization to accomplish their goals, whether it is a small or large organization, for-profit or non-profit, or a government agency.
How to define management?
Management is the process of leading and directing an organization or group of individuals to achieve a common goal by utilizing available resources effectively and efficiently. It involves the planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of an organization’s resources, including people, technology, and information, to achieve desired objectives and goals.
It is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses various theories, approaches, and techniques to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization, and it requires a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills to be able to effectively lead and manage people and resources.
Management is an important element in every organization. It is the element that coordinates current organizational activities and plans for the future. The management adapts the organization to its environment and shapes the organization to make it more suitable for the organization.
It is difficult to define management as management combines so much that describing it in one sentence is almost impossible. Still, many social scientists, management thinkers, and policy administrators are defined in the way they look at management.
Mary Parker Follett said that ‘management is the art of getting things done through others. (Fadia: 2006)
D. J. Clough defined management as the ‘art and science of decision making and leadership. (Fadia: 2006)
Duncan maintains that ‘management consists of all organization activities that involve goal formation and accomplishment, performance appraisal and the development of an operating philosophy that ensures the organization’s survival within the social system. (Fadia: 2006)
“Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or others within the organization. Management functions are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their job.” (Knowledge Management Terms, 2009)
4 Orientation To Define Management Process
Four orientations have been adopted in defining the management process:
(a) Production-or Efficiency-oriented Definition: “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.
(b) Decision-oriented Definitions: “Management is simply the process of decision making and control over the action of human beings for the expressed purpose of attaining predetermined goals”.
(c) People-oriented Definitions: “Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people”.
(d) Function-oriented Definitions: “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to coordinate and to control”.
Why need Management?
Management is necessary for the success of any organization, whether it is a business, a government agency, a non-profit organization, or a small group of individuals. There are several reasons why management is important:
- Achieving Goals: Management helps organizations to set goals and objectives and develop strategies to achieve them. It helps organizations to focus on what is important and to allocate resources effectively to achieve their goals.
- Resource Utilization: Management helps to ensure that resources, such as people, money, materials, and equipment, are used efficiently and effectively. This helps organizations to save time, money, and energy and to achieve more with less.
- Coordination: Management helps to coordinate the activities and efforts of different people and groups within an organization, which ensures that everyone is working towards the same goals.
- Problem Solving: Management helps organizations to identify and solve problems that arise in the course of their operations. It also helps organizations to prevent problems from arising in the first place.
- Effective Communication: Management helps organizations to communicate effectively with different stakeholders, such as employees, customers, suppliers, and shareholders. This helps organizations to build strong relationships with these stakeholders and to achieve their goals.
- Adapting to Change: Management helps organizations to adapt to changes in their environment, whether it’s changes in the economy, changes in technology, or changes in customer needs. This helps organizations to remain competitive and to continue to achieve their goals.
- Decision Making: Management helps organizations to make informed decisions by analyzing data and assessing risks. This helps organizations to make decisions that are in the best interests of the organization and its stakeholders.
- Continuous Improvement: Management helps organizations to continuously improve their performance by setting goals, monitoring progress, and making adjustments as needed. This helps organizations to achieve better results over time and to stay ahead of their competitors.