Development is a crucial aspect of modern society and is a key determinant of a country’s prosperity and well-being. In this article, we’ve provided the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 on Development. The NCERT textbook is widely used in schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and is an essential resource for students preparing for competitive exams like UPSC, PSC, and others.
Our team at PSB (Political Science Blog) has made significant contributions in writing this article to provide comprehensive and accurate solutions to the questions present in the NCERT textbook. With our solutions, you will have a better understanding of the concept of development and its significance in society and politics.
What you will learn?
In this article, you will find answers to questions from the NCERT textbook and other competitive exams that will help you in your exams.
|NCERT Textbook Exercise Solved|
|Additional Question On Development from Political Science Exampler|
|Short-Answer Type Questions|
|Long Answer Type Questions|
With our NCERT Solution for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 Development, you will have a thorough understanding of the subject and be better prepared for your exams.
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 Development Textbook Exercise Solved
What do you understand by the term development? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?
Development is a broad term that refers to improvement, progress, well-being, and the aspiration for a better life in a society. The concept of development encompasses the society’s vision for its future and the means by which to achieve it. However, the term development is often used in a narrower sense to refer specifically to limited goals, such as increasing economic growth or modernizing the society.
Not all sections of society will necessarily benefit from a definition of development, as the process of development can be controversial and have varying impacts on different groups. In some cases, development may lead to a just distribution of benefits and burdens, with decisions made through a democratic process that respects people’s rights. In other cases, however, some sections of society may suffer loss without any compensatory gains, leading to criticism and controversy.
Therefore, a broader understanding of development that includes respect for people’s rights and a just distribution of benefits and burdens can help ensure that the process of development leads to a better outcome for all members of society.
Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been pursued in most countries.
The kind of development that has been pursued in most countries has often resulted in various social and ecological costs. Some of these costs include:
Social Costs of Development:
- Displacement of Communities: Many development projects like building dams, highways, airports, and industrial parks require the acquisition of large areas of land, which often results in the forced displacement of local communities and their resettlement in new areas, often far from their homes and livelihoods.
- Economic Inequality: Economic growth that results from development activities may not always be evenly distributed and often benefits only a small segment of the population, leading to increasing economic inequality.
- Loss of Livelihoods: Many development projects may result in the loss of traditional livelihoods, such as fishing, agriculture, or pastoralism, without providing adequate alternative sources of income.
- Adverse Health Impacts: Development activities can result in environmental pollution, which can cause adverse health impacts, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and pregnant women.
- Cultural Loss: Development projects can also result in the loss of cultural heritage, including the destruction of historic buildings, cultural landmarks, and sacred sites.
Ecological Costs of Development:
- Deforestation and Land Degradation: Development activities often result in large-scale deforestation and land degradation, which can negatively impact biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
- Water Pollution: Development activities can also result in water pollution, particularly in the case of industries that discharge toxic chemicals into rivers and other water sources.
- Soil Erosion: The construction of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure can result in soil erosion and the loss of fertile land.
- Climate Change: Development activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, are significant contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.
- Biodiversity Loss: Development activities, including deforestation, urbanisation, and the creation of new infrastructure, can result in the loss of habitats and the decline of biodiversity.
It is important to recognize that the social and ecological costs of the kind of development that has been pursued in most countries highlight the need for a more sustainable, equitable, and inclusive form of development that prioritizes the well-being of all members of society and the protection of the natural environment.
What are some of the new claims for rights which the process of development has generated?
Answer: The process of development has generated several new claims for rights, including:
- Right to Information: Development projects often impact communities and individuals, making it important for them to have access to information about the project’s goals, implementation process, and potential impacts.
- Right to Consultation: Affected communities and individuals have the right to be consulted and involved in decision-making processes related to development projects that impact their lives.
- Right to Participation: Development projects can have a significant impact on communities, and thus people have the right to participate in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of development initiatives that affect them.
- Right to Compensation: When development projects displace people from their homes or lands, they have the right to fair and adequate compensation.
- Right to Sustainable Development: Development projects should be sustainable, taking into account their long-term ecological and social impacts.
- Right to Health and Environmental Protection: Development projects should not harm the health and well-being of communities or harm the environment.
- Right to Livelihoods: Development projects should ensure that people’s livelihoods are not negatively impacted and that they are able to maintain their standard of living.
What would be the advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding development are made to promote the common good?
Advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding development are made to promote the common good include:
- Representation: In a democracy, the government is elected by the people and is accountable to them. This means that the government is required to take into account the views and needs of all sections of society when making decisions about development.
- Participation: In a democracy, the citizens have the right to participate in the decision-making process. This means that people can voice their opinions, make their needs known and contribute to the development debate.
- Transparency: In a democratic system, there is a higher degree of transparency and accountability. This means that the government must justify its decisions and the decision-making process must be open and accessible to the public.
- Protection of rights: In a democracy, the government is obligated to respect the fundamental rights and freedoms of its citizens. This includes the right to life, liberty and property. Decisions about development must take into account the rights of individuals and ensure that these rights are not violated.
- Responsiveness: In a democracy, the government must be responsive to the needs and concerns of its citizens. This means that it must be prepared to change its policies and approaches in response to public pressure and demands.
- Competition: In a democratic system, political parties compete for power and support. This competition encourages the development of policies and ideas that are responsive to the needs and concerns of the people.
- Fair distribution of benefits: In a democratic system, the government must ensure that the benefits of development are distributed fairly and equitably. This means that decisions about development must take into account the needs of the most vulnerable and marginalized sections of society.
In your view how successful have popular struggles like been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development? Discuss with examples.
Popular struggles, also known as social movements, have been a powerful means for communities and marginalized groups to voice their concerns and demand change from the state and other actors involved in development projects. These struggles can take many forms, including peaceful demonstrations, community organizing, and direct action.
Success of these struggles in making the state responsive to social and environmental costs of development has been varied, with some achieving significant wins, while others facing ongoing challenges. However, it is generally agreed that social movements have been successful in raising awareness and public discourse about the negative impacts of development, and in putting pressure on the state and corporations to address these concerns.
Examples of successful popular struggles include the Chipko movement in India, where communities successfully protested against the deforestation of their forests and helped establish the idea of ecologically responsible development. Another example is the anti-nuclear movement in the 1970s and 1980s, which led to a global shift in public opinion and policies towards renewable energy sources.
Challanges and Limitations:
On the other hand, many popular struggles have faced significant challenges in making the state responsive, as governments and corporations often have strong financial incentives to pursue development projects regardless of their impacts on communities and the environment. For example, the indigenous rights movement in many countries has faced ongoing challenges in protecting their lands and cultures from extractive industries, such as mining and logging.
In conclusion, popular struggles have played an important role in highlighting the social and environmental costs of development, and in pushing for more just and sustainable development outcomes. However, their success ultimately depends on the political and economic systems in which they operate, as well as the balance of power between communities, corporations, and the state.