Peace is an essential aspect of a stable and prosperous society. In this article, we’ve provided the NCERT Solution for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 on Peace. The NCERT textbook is widely used in schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and is an essential resource for students preparing for competitive exams like UPSC, PSC, and others.
Our team at PSB (Political Science Blog) has made substantial contributions in writing this article to provide comprehensive and accurate solutions to the questions present in the NCERT textbook. With our solutions, you will have a better understanding of the concept of peace and its significance in society and politics.
What you will learn?
In this article, you will find answers to questions from the NCERT textbook and other competitive exams that will help you in your exams.
|Solved NCERT Exercise|
|Additional Question On Peace from Political Science Exampler|
|Short-Answer Type Questions|
|Long Answer Type Questions|
With our NCERT Solution for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Peace, you will have a thorough understanding of the subject and be better prepared for your exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 NCERT Textbook Exercise Solved
Do you think that a change towards a peaceful world, needs a change in the way people think? Can mind promote peace and is it enough to focus only on the human mind?
- A change towards a peaceful world does require a change in the way people think.
- A change in mindset is necessary to break the cycle of violence and conflict and promote peace.
- The connection between mind and peace is emphasized, with the idea that a peaceful mindset can lead to peace and a negative mindset can contribute to conflict.
- The idea that wrong-doing arises from the mind is supported by Gautam Buddha’s teachings.
- The human mind plays a crucial role in shaping behavior, beliefs, and attitudes towards others.
- Therefore, promoting peaceful thinking and behavior is a vital step towards creating a more peaceful world.
- However, it is not enough to only focus on the human mind.
- There are also systemic and structural factors that contribute to conflict and violence, such as inequality, poverty, and political instability.
- The UNESCO recognizes the role of the mind in promoting peace and calls for an approach that utilizes the power of the mind to create peace.
- Spiritual principles and practices, such as compassion and meditation, are seen as tools to foster a peaceful mindset.
- Addressing these underlying issues is crucial to promoting and sustaining peace in the long term.
- Therefore, a multi-faceted approach that combines individual and collective actions is needed to create a more peaceful world.
A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of-its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples.
- A state is responsible for ensuring the safety and well-being of its citizens.
- The state maintains law and order and protects the rights of its citizens through various means such as a constitution, laws, police, judiciary, and armed forces.
- However, in some cases, the actions of the state itself can lead to violence and violation of the rights of its citizens.
Examples from around the world –
- An example of this is the recent US intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq, which has resulted in the loss of numerous lives.
- Another example is the Rwandan genocide in 1994, where the UN failed to intervene and prevent the murder of nearly half a million Tutsis by Hutus.
In India, some examples include:
- The 1984 massacre of nearly 4,000 Sikhs in Delhi, where the government was unable to prevent the violence and the victims felt that the guilty were not punished.
- The Khalistan movement resulted in forced migration of Sikhs and Hindus and violence against both communities.
- The 2002 massacre of Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat, where members of these communities were forced to leave their villages and have not been able to return.
- The recent farmer protests in the country, where the government’s handling of the situation was criticized for causing harm to peaceful protesters.
Peace can be best realized when there is freedom, equality and justice. Do you agree?
Yes, I agree with the statement that peace can be best realized when there is freedom, equality, and justice. The three elements are interdependent and play a crucial role in creating a peaceful society.
- Peace is considered as an essential aspect for human well-being and is advocated by various religions and philosophers.
- The realization of peace requires freedom, equality, and justice.
- Freedom refers to the absence of external restrictions on individual rights, such as the right to express opinions, practice religion, and participate in political processes.
- Equality means ensuring that all individuals are treated fairly and have equal opportunities in society regardless of their gender, race, religion, or economic status.
- Justice refers to the fair and impartial administration of laws and the protection of individual rights.
- India: Despite having a constitution that guarantees freedom, equality, and justice, various forms of discrimination and inequality still exist in the country. For example, the caste system still affects millions of people, leading to social and economic marginalization. Women continue to face discrimination, including gender-based violence, unequal pay, and limited opportunities.
- World: Racism and prejudice remain a major issue globally, with minorities and immigrant communities often facing discrimination and limited opportunities. Economic inequality is also widespread, with the rich getting richer and the poor becoming poorer. In many countries, the justice system is also biased against marginalized groups, leading to a lack of trust in government institutions.
Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run. What do you think about this statement?
- The statement that “the use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run” is generally true and supported by history.
- The use of violence often leads to counter-violence and a cycle of retribution that can escalate and cause even greater harm.
- For example, the use of violence by governments to suppress dissent can result in further unrest and resistance, rather than resolving the underlying issues.
- The use of violence by groups to advance their causes can also lead to greater repression and harm to innocent people, rather than achieving their goals.
- The nonviolent resistance movements led by leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. have shown that nonviolence can be a more effective way to achieve lasting peace and justice.
- In the case of Gandhi’s independence movement in India, his nonviolent protests and civil disobedience helped to bring about the end of British rule without resorting to violence.
- Similarly, the civil rights movement in the United States, led by King, achieved significant progress in ending segregation and discrimination through nonviolent means.
- These examples demonstrate that peaceful means are often more effective in achieving just ends in the long run, as opposed to violence.
Differentiate between the major approaches, discussed in the chapter, to the establishment of peace in the world.
There are three distinct approaches to the establishment of peace in the world, as discussed in the chapter.
- State Centric Approach: This approach focuses on the centrality of states, respects their sovereignty and considers competition among states as a fact of life. The main concern is with the proper management of this competition and the containment of possible conflict through inter-state arrangements such as balance of power. The 19th century Europe provides an example of this approach, where major European countries formed alliances to deter potential aggressors and prevent the outbreak of large-scale war.
- Interdependence Approach: This approach acknowledges the deep-rooted nature of inter-state rivalry, but stresses on the positive presence and possibilities of interdependence. It emphasizes the growing social and economic cooperation among nations and expects it to temper state sovereignty and promote international understanding, thereby reducing global conflict and leading to better prospects of peace. An example of this approach is the post-World War II Europe, which secured durable peace through political unification after economic integration.
- Supra-National Approach: This approach considers the state system as a passing phase of human history and envisions the emergence of a supra-national order. It sees the fostering of a global community as the surest guarantee of peace, through the expanding interactions and coalitions across state boundaries that involve diverse non-governmental actors like multinational corporations and people’s movements. The proponents of this approach argue that the ongoing process of globalization is eroding the already diminished primacy and sovereignty of the state, creating conditions conducive to the establishment of world peace.
The United Nations embodies elements of all three approaches. The Security Council reflects the prevalent international hierarchy, the Economic and Social Council promotes inter-state cooperation, and the Commission on Human Rights seeks to shape and apply transnational norms.