In this article you will learn about the causes and consequences of Russian Revolution in 1917. This article will cover the causes and conseqences in chronologocal order.
Causes of Russian Revolution 1917
1. The tradition of Tsarist rule in Russia
For centuries, Russia was ruled by a monarchy known as the Tsarist regime. The monarch had absolute power over the country, and the people had little to no say in how the government was run. The Tsars were seen as appointed by God and had a divine right to rule over the people. This tradition of rule continued for centuries, until the 20th century.
2. The issue of the emancipation of the serfs in 1861
In 1861, Tsar Alexander II issued an edict that emancipated the serfs, who were essentially peasants who were tied to the land they worked on. This was a major step towards modernization and reform in Russia, as it gave the serfs some freedom and basic rights. However, the serfs were still bound to their landowners and were required to pay for their freedom, which caused much hardship for many of them.
3. The assassination of Alexander II in 1881 and the succession of Alexander III
Unfortunately, Alexander II was assassinated in 1881, which set back the progress that had been made towards reform. Alexander III, his successor, was much more conservative and authoritarian, and he undid many of the reforms that his predecessor had implemented. He believed in the divine right of kings and was opposed to the ideas of democracy and social reform.
4. The first congress of the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party) in 1898
In 1898, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed, which aimed to bring about social and political change in Russia. The party was led by intellectuals and activists who believed in Marxism and wanted to establish a socialist state. The party was divided into two factions, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, who had different views on how to bring about revolution.
5. The founding of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1900
The Socialist Revolutionary Party was founded in 1900, which was another socialist party that aimed to bring about change in Russia. They were more focused on the interests of the peasants and rural workers, and they advocated for land reform and a more democratic government. The party became very popular among the working class and had a significant presence in the Russian parliament.
6. The second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903, which led to a split between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks
In 1903, the second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held, which led to a split between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, believed in the need for a small, tightly organized party that would lead the revolution. The Mensheviks, on the other hand, believed in a more gradual approach to revolution and wanted a broader, more inclusive party.
7. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905
In 1904, Russia went to war with Japan, which was a major defeat for the Russian military. The war led to a loss of prestige for the Tsarist regime and highlighted the weaknesses of the Russian army. The war also led to protests and unrest among the Russian people, who were dissatisfied with the government’s handling of the war.
8. The Russian Revolution of 1905
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a major uprising against the Tsarist regime, which was sparked by a series of events including the Russo-Japanese War, the poor economy, and political repression. The revolution was largely unsuccessful in overthrowing the government, but it did lead to some reforms, including the establishment of the State Duma, which was a parliamentary body.
9. The establishment of the State Duma in 1906.
The State Duma was established in Russia in 1906 after the Russian Revolution of 1905, which led to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II’s absolute power. The Duma was a parliamentary body that consisted of elected representatives who had the power to draft and approve laws, and to check the power of the Tsar. However, the Tsar had the power to dissolve the Duma at any time, and the electoral system was heavily rigged in favor of the nobility and the wealthy.
10. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
In 1914, Russia entered the First World War as an ally of France and Britain against Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The war had a significant impact on Russia, with millions of Russian soldiers mobilized and sent to the front lines, leaving the country with a severe labor shortage. The war also put an enormous strain on the Russian economy, which was ill-equipped to handle the demands of modern warfare.
11. The economic issues, such as inflation and food shortages, during the war.
During the First World War, the Russian economy suffered greatly due to the high cost of war production and the disruption of trade. Food shortages were widespread, and inflation soared, leading to a significant decline in the standard of living for ordinary people. Many soldiers were sent to the front without adequate supplies and equipment, leading to high casualty rates.
12. The February Revolution of 1917, which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the formation of a provisional government.
In February 1917, a series of strikes and protests erupted in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), the capital of Russia, in response to food shortages and rising prices. The protests quickly spread to other cities and towns, and the Tsar’s authority began to crumble. The Tsar was forced to abdicate on March 15, 1917, and a provisional government was established in his place. The provisional government was made up of liberal politicians, who promised to create a democratic system of government and end the war.
The October Revolution of 1917, which established the Bolshevik government.
The October Revolution of 1917, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party. The Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government in a coup d’état and established the world’s first communist government. The new government was based on the principles of Marxism-Leninism, which called for the abolition of private property and the establishment of a socialist economy.
The two important decrees on peace and land declared by the Soviet government.
After the Bolsheviks came to power, they issued two important decrees that would have a profound impact on Russian society. The first decree, issued on November 8, 1917, called for an immediate end to the war. The second decree, issued on November 26, 1917, called for the nationalization of all land in Russia and its redistribution to the peasants. These decrees marked a significant departure from the policies of the previous government and were widely popular among ordinary Russians.
The onset of the Cold War and the global impact of the Russian Revolution.
The Russian Revolution had a profound impact on world history, as it led to the establishment of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism around the world. The Soviet Union became a superpower, and its rivalry with the United States led to the Cold War, a period of intense geopolitical tension that lasted from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Russian Revolution also inspired other anti-colonial and socialist movements in Asia, Africa, and Latin America,