The Manusmriti discusses the polity of ancient India, and advocates for a political authority to prevent disorder in society. According to the text, it is the duty of the king to ensure justice and protect the weak. The Manusmriti also delves into the social hierarchy and caste system, and Manu suggested that the king, though deriving his authority from God, should be guided by the Brahmanas due to their knowledge and ability to rule. The structure of the state, as written by Manu, includes villages, districts, and provinces, which is similar to our current administration structure. The Manusmriti also proposed an assembly of learned individuals and state officers to advise the king, highlighting the importance of public opinion. Members of the assembly were expected to make decisions objectively and based on dharma. The text also suggests that village and district authorities should operate independently, with the king’s assistance only when needed, and that the welfare of the general public was a major concern of the king.

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