Equality is an important aspect of political science and is crucial for the functioning of a democratic society. In this article, we’ve provided an NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 on Equality. The NCERT textbook is widely used in schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and is an essential resource for students preparing for competitive exams like UPSC and others.

Our team at PSB (Political Science Blog) has worked tirelessly to provide comprehensive and accurate solutions to the questions present in the NCERT textbook. With our solutions, you will have a better understanding of the concepts of equality and its relevance in today’s world.

What you will learn:

In this article, you will find answers to questions from the NCERT textbook and other additional questions from Political Science Exampler that will help you in your exams.

Solved NCERT Exercise
Additional Question On Equality from Political Science Exampler
Short-Answer Type Questions
Long Answer Type Questions

With our NCERT Solution for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Equality, you will have a thorough understanding of the subject and be better prepared for your exams.

Solved NCERT Exercise

Question 1: Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality which is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by the society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.


On one hand, those who believe inequality is natural argue that it arises from differences in personal attributes such as physical, mental, or emotional traits. They also point to differences in abilities and characteristics as factors that result in unequal outcomes.

On the other hand, those who believe equality is natural argue that socially created inequalities result from unequal access to opportunities, including factors such as family background and education. They believe that all human beings are equal in their inherent worth and dignity and that social inequalities reflect societal values that may be perceived as unjust.

In conclusion, the answer to the question of whether inequality or equality is natural may depend on one’s perspective and values. Both views are influenced by beliefs, experiences, and available evidence.

Question 2: There is a view that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. It is argued that the most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and the poorest members of society. Do you agree?


Economic equality is often seen as the cornerstone of a just and fair society. It is the idea that everyone should have equal opportunities to succeed and prosper, regardless of their background or circumstances. While absolute economic equality is an ideal that many people aspire to, it is widely acknowledged that it is neither possible nor desirable in practice.

The reason for this is that complete equality of wealth and income would likely stifle innovation and motivation. People would not have any incentives to work hard and improve their circumstances. This could lead to a decrease in economic growth and prosperity for society as a whole.

However, this does not mean that we should give up on the idea of economic equality altogether. Instead, it is widely believed that the most a society can do is to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and poorest members of society. By doing this, we can ensure that everyone has access to the resources and opportunities they need to thrive, while still allowing for incentives and motivation to drive economic growth.

The key to achieving this balance is to find the right level of inequality. This will depend on a variety of factors, including the economic, political, and cultural context of a given society. The goal is to find a way to support economic growth and prosperity while ensuring that the benefits of this growth are shared fairly across society.

Question 3: Match the following concepts with appropriate instances:

(a) Affirmative action(i) Every adult citizen has a right to vote.
(b) Equality of opportunity(ii) Banks offer higher rate of interest to senior citizen
(c) Equal Rights.(iii) Every child should get free education.


(A) Affirmative Action: Banks offer higher rate of interest to senior citizen.


  • Senior citizens have made significant contributions to society throughout their lives.
  • As they age, their income may decrease due to increased medical and social expenses.

(B) Equality of Opportunity: Every child should get free education


  • Ensuring equal educational opportunities for all children is crucial in promoting equality.
  • Discriminating practices that limit access to education for certain groups violate the principles of equality.

(C) Equal Rights: Every adult citizen has a right to vote.


  • The principle of “one person, one vote, one value” underpins the right to vote for all adult citizens.
  • No citizen should be excluded from this right on the basis of discrimination.

Question 4: A government report on farmers’ problems says that small and marginal farmers cannot get good prices from the market. It recommends that the government should intervene to ensure a better price but only for small and marginal farmers. Is this recommendation consistent with the principle of equality?

Positive Side:

Yes, this recommendation aligns with the principle of equality.

The purpose of a democratic government is to ensure that all citizens, including small and marginal farmers, have their interests protected.

By intervening to provide better prices for small and marginal farmers, the government is taking steps to ensure that these farmers receive social, economic, and political justice. This intervention helps to level the playing field and ensure that all farmers, regardless of size, have an equal opportunity to succeed.

Negative Side:

This recommendation is also not consistent with the principle of equality. The principle of equality holds that all individuals should be treated equally and without discrimination.

By providing better prices only for small and marginal farmers and not other farmers, the government is engaging in discriminatory practices and not treating all farmers equally. This goes against the principle of equality.

Question 5: Which of the following violates the principles of equality? And why?

(A) Every child in the class will read the text of the play by turn.

(B) The Government of Canada encouraged white Europeans to migrate to Canada from the end of the Second World War till 1960.

(C) There is a separate railway reservation counter for the senior citizens.

(D) Access to some forest areas is reserved for certain tribal communities.


  • A) This statement aligns with the principle of equality because all children are given equal treatment and opportunities without discrimination.
  • B) This statement violates the principle of equality as it involves discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity.
  • C) It does not violates the principle of equality as it recognizes and honors senior citizens and does not discriminate against other individuals who may one day become senior citizens themselves.
  • D) It violates the principle of equality as it involves discriminatory practices by reserving certain forest areas for only some tribal communities and not treating all tribal communities equally.

Question 6: Here are some arguments in favour of the right to vote for women. Which of these are consistent with the idea of equality? Give reasons.

  • (A) Women are our mothers. We shall not disrespect our mothers by denying them the right to vote.
  • (B) Decisions of the government affect women as well as men, therefore, they also should have a say in choosing the rulers.
  • (C) Not granting women the right to vote will cause disharmony in the family.
  • (D) Women constitute half of humanity. You cannot subjugate them for long time by denying them the right to vote.


(A) and (D) align with the principle of equality.

  • All individuals should be treated equally without discrimination
  • Government decisions should affect all individuals in a fair and equal manner
  • Women should not be discriminated based on their gender
  • Equality and freedom are vital principles in a society
  • Women must have equal rights and opportunities, including the right to vote and equal representation in decision making.