The NCERT solution for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 on “Rights” is a comprehensive guide designed to assist students in understanding the important concepts and themes related to rights and their significance in modern societies. The article has been written by the PSB Team, a group of experienced educators who have collaborated to provide students with the best resources for their studies.
What you will learn here?
In this article, you will find NCERT textbook solutions for the chapter along with additional questions from exams like CBSE, UPSC, and other competitive exams.
|Solved NCERT Exercise|
|Additional Question On Rights from Political Science Exampler|
|Short-Answer Type Questions|
|Long Answer Type Questions|
These questions are framed from an exam perspective and are aimed at helping students prepare for their exams effectively.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Rights Textbook Solved Exercise
|Question 1||What are rights and why are they important? What are the bases on which claims to rights can be made?|
Rights and Their Importance
- Rights are legal, moral, or ethical principles or norms that prescribe what is due to individuals or groups and that serve as standards of protection and justification for demands for the protection of interests, privileges, or powers.
- Rights are important because they provide individuals and groups with a sense of security, dignity, and freedom, enabling them to lead fulfilling lives and to participate in society as equals.
- They are essential for the protection of human dignity, equality, and freedom and play a critical role in promoting human development and well-being.
Bases for Claims to Rights
- Claims to rights can be based on several different factors, including:
- Natural rights: The idea that certain rights are inherent to human nature and exist independently of any specific legal or political system.
- Legal rights: Rights that are enshrined in the laws and constitutions of a particular country or jurisdiction.
- Human rights: Universal rights that are considered to be inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, gender, religion, or nationality.
- Contractual rights: Rights that are granted through an agreement between two or more parties, such as in a contract or treaty.
- Historical rights: Rights that have developed over time through custom, tradition, or usage and are considered to have a long-standing and legitimate claim.
Note: It is also important to note that different types of rights can overlap and interact in complex ways, and the basis for claims to rights can sometimes be controversial or disputed.
|Question 2||On what grounds are some rights considered to be universal in nature? Identify three rights which you consider universal. Give reasons.|
Three rights which are considered universal are:
- Right to life: This means that every person has the right to live and no one has the right to take away their life. This right is considered to be the most basic and fundamental of all human rights.
- Right to liberty: This refers to the right to freedom of movement, expression, and association. People have the right to do what they want within the limits of the law and without interference from the state or others.
- Right to property: This means that people have the right to own and use property without interference from the state or others. This right is considered essential for the protection of individual freedom and dignity.
These rights are considered to be universal because they are derived from natural law and are considered to be inalienable and no one can take these away from us. The idea that all persons are born with certain rights and are equal and no one is born to serve others is the basis for the concept of universal human rights. The UN Declaration of Human Rights builds upon this understanding of rights and recognizes claims that are important for leading a life of dignity and self-respect.
|Question 3||Discuss briefly some of the new rights claims which are being put forward in our country today for example the rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and way of life, or the rights of children against bonded labour.|
In India, there are various new rights claims being put forward by marginalized communities, such as:
- The rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and way of life: This refers to the right of India’s indigenous communities, known as Adivasis, to protect their ancestral lands, cultures, and traditions. This may include the right to participate in decision-making processes that affect their lands, the right to free, prior and informed consent, and the right to non-discrimination.
- The rights of children against bonded labour: This refers to the right of children to be protected from exploitation and forced labour, which is a widespread issue in India. Children who are forced into bonded labour are denied their right to an education and are subjected to hazardous working conditions. This right is aimed at protecting children from these abuses and ensuring that they have access to education and safe working conditions.
- The rights of Dalits: Dalits, also known as Scheduled Castes, are historically marginalized communities in India who face discrimination and exclusion. There are various new rights claims being put forward by Dalits, including the right to dignity, non-discrimination, and equal treatment under the law.
These new rights claims reflect the need for greater protection and recognition of the rights of marginalized communities in India, and the struggle for more inclusive and equitable societies. They are an expression of the moral outrage about infringements of people’s dignity and a rallying call for action to extend rights to all human beings.
|Question 4||Differentiate between political, economic and cultural rights. Give examples of each kind of right.|
Political rights are the rights that allow citizens to participate in the political process and have equality before the law. Examples of political rights include the right to vote, the right to contest elections, the right to form or join political parties, and the right to a free and fair trial.
Economic rights are the rights that aim to protect the well-being of the individual by ensuring basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, and health are met. Examples of economic rights include the right to an adequate wage, housing and medical facilities provided by the state, and the right to a minimum wage for the unemployed.
Cultural rights are the rights that recognize the cultural claims of citizens and are necessary for leading a good life. Examples of cultural rights include the right to primary education in one’s mother tongue, the right to establish institutions for teaching one’s language and culture.
These rights form the basis of a democratic system of government and are aimed at ensuring the well-being and decent life of individuals. Some rights, such as the right to life, liberty, equal treatment, and political participation, are considered basic rights that receive priority, while others are seen as justified claims or rights.
|Question 5||Rights place some limits on the authority of the state. Explain with examples.|
Rights Limiting State Authority:
- Rights place an obligation on the state to act in certain ways and also place limits on state actions.
- For example, the right to life obliges the state to make laws protecting citizens from injury by others and to punish those who harm them.
- The right to liberty means the state cannot simply arrest someone without a reason and must defend its actions before a judicial court.
- Rights ensure that the authority of the state is exercised without violating individual life and liberty.
- The state must exercise its authority for the good of the people, and rulers are accountable for their actions.