Taylor doubted the efficiency of the ‘linear’ system or the military type of organization in which each worker is subordinate to only one boss. He replaced this system with functional foremanship in which the worker receives orders from eight narrowly specialized supervisors.
Thus, he divided work among workers and at the supervisory level. Four of the eight functional bosses will be responsible for planning, and the remaining four for execution. The gang boss, the repair boss, the speed boss, and the inspector are the four execution functional bosses.
The four planning bosses are the order of work and route clerk, the instruction card clerk, the time and cost clerk, and the shop disciplinarian. The staff specialist in line and staff concept subsequently incorporated this division of work between planning and execution.
Taylor also specified nine qualities that will make a good foreman: education, special or technical knowledge, manual dexterity and strength, tact, energy, grit, honesty, judgment, and good health. (Taylor 1947: 96)
Taylor also developed some more mechanisms to serve his principles of scientific management. They are –
- Standardization of all tools and implements used in the trades and also of the acts or movements of workers for each class of work;
- The desirability of a planning room or department;
- The ‘exception principles’ in management;
- The use of slide rules and similar time-saving implements;
- Instruction cards for the workman;
- The task idea in management, accompanied by a large bonus for the successful performance of the task;
- Mnemonic systems for classifying manufactured products at well as implements used in manufacturing;
- A routing system;
- Modern cost system, etc.
Scientific management increases the production rate by using standardized tools, equipment and methods, improves product quality by research, quality control, and inspection, and reduces the cost of production by cost control techniques.
- It eliminates waste in using resources, time, and manufacturing methods.
- It also places the right men on the right job through proper selection and training.
- It ensures fair wages to workers and reasonable prices for standardized goods to consumers.
- It aims at securing the maximum prosperity for both the employers and the employees in the organization. Employers benefit as they earn greater profits, and employees gain higher wages, better working conditions, and mental satisfaction.